Relinquishes presidency after one term and allows Thabo Mbeki to run.
February 11
The Nelson Mandela Museum is established in the Transkei to honour the legacy, values and principles of Mandela.
Begins to broker negotiations in war-torn Rwanda. An agreement is signed by 19 parties.
Officially opens the Jewish Museum situated on Cape Town's “Museum Mile”.
Diagnosed with and treated for prostate cancer.
Establishes the Mandela Rhodes Foundation.
April 6
Awarded an Honorary Doctorate in Law from Rhodes University in Grahamstown.
Awarded the Order of Mapungubwe (Platinum) by President Thabo Mbeki at the Union Buildings in Pretoria.
Controversially attacks the foreign policy of then United States President George W Bush.
Launches the 46664 Aids fundraising campaign, named after his prison number.
March 31
Sandton Square in Johannesburg is renamed Nelson Mandela Square with the unveiling of a 6-metre tall bronze statue in his image.
June 2
Announces his retirement from public life at the age of 85.
July 1
Flies to Bangkok to speak at the XV International Aids Conference.
July 23
Johannesburg bestows its highest honour by granting Mandela the freedom of the city.
January 6
His son, Makgatho, dies of Aids and Mandela famously reveals the cause of death in a climate of government denialism.
Launches a comic series on his life and quips: "You know you are famous the day you discover you have become a comic character."
April 16
Eldest grandson, Mandla, installed as chief of the Mvezo Traditional Council, a position his grandfather gave up to fight white rule.
August 3
The Nelson Mandela Institute for Education and Rural Development is launched in partnership with Unicef.
Condemns the "tragic failure of leadership" in Zimbabwe at the height of the crisis over the country's presidential election.
July 18
Turns 90 years old to worldwide commemoration and asks the emerging generation to continue the fight for social justice.
April 22
Votes for the fourth time in his life in the country's general elections.
May 9
Attends the inauguration of South Africa’s fourth democratically elected president, Jacob Zuma.
The Nelson Mandela's Favourite African Folktales project launched by Artists for a New South Africa and benefiting thousands of South African orphans.
July 18
United Nations declares July 18 Mandela Day as a tribute to his contribution to world freedom.
Awarded Amnesty International’s Ambassador of Conscience Award in recognition of his fearless championing of freedom and justice around the world.
December 11
The Hollywood movie Invictus is released, based on Mandela's role in the 1995 Rugby World Cup.
February 11
Makes a rare public appearance in Parliament in Cape Town as the country celebrates the 20th anniversary of his release from prison.
June 11
Pulls out of appearing at the World Cup opening ceremony in South Africa after the death of his great-granddaughter in a car crash the night before.
June 11
Mandela's great-granddaughter Zenani dies in a car crash after the Fifa World Cup kick-off concert.
July 11
Appears briefly on the pitch at the closing ceremony of the Soccer World Cup at Soccer City.
Admitted to Milpark Hospital in Johannesburg for a respiratory infection and released two days later amid intense media speculation.
January 29
His last surviving sibling Nokuthamba dies.
March 28
International Nelson Mandela Day is launched to commemorate the former statesman's 67 years in active politics. People have been called on to do 67 minutes of charity in Madiba's honour.
June 28
Nelson Mandela's infant great-grandson Zenawe Zibuyile Mandela, born to his granddaughter Zoleka Mandela, dies after being born three months prematurely.
In February, Mandela spent a night in a hospital for minor diagnostic surgery to determine the cause of an abdominal complaint.
May 29
Mandela relocates from Houghton to his home in Qunu.
July 18
Nelson Mandela celebrates his 94th birthday.
A statue comprising of 50 steel columns is unveiled in Howick in the KwaZulu-Natal Midlands to commemorate 50 years since Mandela was arrested and charged for treason. Designed by Marco Cianfanelli, the front of the sculpture is a portrait of Mandela and has vertical bars which represent his imprisonment.
August 6
The US secretary of state Hillary Clinton visits 94-year-old Mandela at his home village of Qunu. At the time, the Nobel peace laureate spent more time in Qunu and in May, it was announced he would remain there indefinitely.
November 6
Reserve Bank governor Gill Marcus says Mandela is excited about the new banknotes bearing his image. "He is delighted, very excited about it. We did show him the designs, the drafts and everything else," she said.
December 8
Mandela is hospitalised at a Pretoria hospital and diagnosed with a recurring lung infection and gallstones.
December 15
Mandela undergoes surgery to remove gallstones. "This morning [Saturday] the former president underwent a procedure via endoscopy to have the gallstones removed," presidency spokesperson Mac Maharaj said in a statement. "The procedure was successful and Madiba is recovering. The medical team decided to attend to a lung infection before determining when to attend to the gallstones."
December 26
Mandela is discharged after 19 days in hospital during which he was treated for a lung infection and gallstones which were surgically removed.
December 29
Mandela's family has appealed to the public to stop spreading rumours about his health. Mandela's grandchild Zaziwe Manaway reportedly told Eyewitness News that Mandela was "alert". "He is very alert. My grandfather still wakes up in the morning [and] reads the newspaper so he is also aware of what is being said about him," Manaway told the news station.
March 9
The presidency says that Mandela has been admitted to the Pretoria hospital for a scheduled medical check-up. Maharaj said doctors are conducting tests and have indicated so far that there is "no reason for any alarm".
March 10
Mandela is discharged from hospital and returns to his Johannesburg home.
March 27
The presidency says Mandela has been admitted to an undisclosed hospital due to a recurrence of his lung infection. The admittance to hospital comes three months after the 94-year-old former president was admitted to hospital in the capital Pretoria on December 8, also for a lung infection and to remove gallstones.
A film installation The Power of Words, which celebrates the words of Mandela, is taking over the electronic billboards in Times Square for a few minutes every night until May. The short film was commissioned by the Tribeca Film Institute, an arts organisation co-founded by actor Robert De Niro.
April 2
Mandela remains in hospital where he received treatment for pneumonia.
April 6
Mandela is discharged after a nine-day hospital stay. He was admitted to hospital on March 27. Since then he has had fluid drained from his lungs to ease his breathing.
April 10
The Star newspaper reports Mandela's daughters, Makaziwe and Zenani Mandela, make a court application to have George Bizos, businessperson and politician Tokyo Sexwale and lawyer Bally Chuene removed from Harmonieux Investment Holdings and Magnifique Investment Holdings. Both companies were established by Mandela's former lawyer Ismail Ayob to channel proceeds of Mandela's handprints into the accounts of the companies for Mandela and his children's benefit.
April 15
Mandela's wife Graca Machel releases a statement to say the former president is recovering well at home after being released from hospital earlier in April.
April 29
The SABC broadcasts exclusive footage of an ailing Mandela on its evening news bulletin, showing him sitting impassively with a blanket over his legs. "We had some conversation with him, shook hands, he was smiling," Zuma told the SABC. "He's really up and about, [and] stabilised. We are very happy, we think he is fine." SABC News had footage of Mandela sitting in a chair flanked by Zuma, ANC deputy president Cyril Ramaphosa, party chairperson Baleka Mbete and his medical team. Mandela looked blankly at the camera, while everyone around him stood chatting and laughing. A frail Mandela was seen closing his eyes as someone's camera flash clearly affected his eyes. Mandela is known to have sensitive eyes after years of working in a limestone quarry when he was imprisoned on Robben Island.
April 30
The ANC defends its Madiba visit and says it was in line with ubuntu values. ANC spokesperson Jackson Mthembu released a statement after being criticised in the media and on social media platforms. Thousands vented their anger at the highly publicised visit on social media, prompting Mthembu to respond.
May 20
Mandela's daughters are suing him for the rights to his artworks and control of his millions. According to the Star newspaper, Zenani and Makaziwe Mandela intend fighting an April 2004 Johannesburg High Court order which gave Mandela the right to instruct Ismail Ayob, his then lawyer, to stop managing his financial, personal and legal affairs. The court order barred Ayob from selling any of Mandela's artworks. The Star reports that Mandela's current lawyer, Bally Chuene, filed an affidavit in response to a lawsuit brought by the sisters, who are represented by Ayob.
May 20
A teaser poster and trailer for Mandela: Long Walk to Freedom is unveiled at the prestigious 66th Cannes Film Festival.
June 8
Mandela is admitted to the Pretoria hospital due to a recurring lung infection. "This morning at about 1.30am his condition deteriorated and he was transferred to a Pretoria hospital," Maharaj said in a statement. "He remains in a serious but stable condition." Maharaj says doctors were doing everything they could to make Mandela "better and comfortable".
June 10
Maharaj says Mandela is receiving intensive care at the Pretoria hospital. "Today the doctors are saying his condition is unchanged."
June 12
Zuma says Mandela is responding to hospital treatment. Speaking in the National Assembly, Zuma said: "We are happy to report that former president Nelson Mandela is responding to treatment. We are happy with the progress he is making during these difficult days. We appreciate the support from the international community. We are proud to call him our own. We ask you to continue to keep him in your thoughts and prayers."
June 15
Nelson Mandela's wife breaks her silence and thanks South Africa for the outpouring of "love and generosity" during Madiba's stay in hospital. She said in a statement the outpouring of affection and support had come from South Africans, Africans and from across the globe, in the form of emails, letters, social media networks and "the human voice".
June 17
Nelson Mandela's wife breaks her silence and thanks South Africa for the outpouring of "love and generosity" during Madiba's stay in hospital. She said in a statement the outpouring of affection and support had come from South Africans, Africans and from across the globe, in the form of emails, letters, social media networks and "the human voice".
June 21
Ndaba Mandela thanked people around the world for sending well-wishes to his grandfather Madiba who, he says, is expected to be discharged from hospital soon.
June 22
CBS reports that Nelson Mandela has been "unresponsive and has not opened his eyes for days", despite government reports that he is recovering. According to the American news network, a "new source" alleges that Mandela has been "unresponsive for days" at the Pretoria hospital where he is receiving treatment and that his liver and kidney functions are down to 50%. CBS also claims that Mandela's ambulance broke down two weeks ago on the way to hospital - stranding him for 40 minutes.
June 22
The presidency confirms the military ambulance that transported Mandela to hospital broke down due to "engine problems". "All care was taken to ensure that Madiba's medical condition was not compromised by the unforeseen incident," Maharaj says. "Doctors attending to Madiba are satisfied that the former president suffered no harm during this period."
June 23
The presidency releases a statement that Mandela's condition is critical.
June 25
Close relatives of Mandela and chiefs of the Abathembu royal family gather at his home in Qunu, in the Eastern Cape following an urgent call reportedly made by his children. A few cars had been seen at the Mandela family gravesite in Qunu, while the relatives called an urgent meeting in the village to brief the elders.
June 26
CNN and the Citizen reports Mandela is on life support, and Maharaj says commenting on the matter would break doctor/patient confidentiality.
June 26
Zuma cancels a trip to neighbouring Mozambique, intensifying speculation about deterioration of the health of Mandela, who has been receiving treatment for a lung infection for nearly three weeks.
June 27
The presidency says Mandela's condition has improved and is now stable, but still critical and that his condition stabilised overnight. The presidency announced: "President Jacob Zuma visited former president Nelson Mandela in hospital in Pretoria today, June 27, and was informed by the medical team that Madiba's condition has improved during the course of the night."
July 5
The presidency denies that Mandela is in a "vegetative state" after AFP reports to that effect, and court documents in a battle between his family over where he should be buried show that he is on life support.